The German, who had started in third, benefited from a strange Ferrari strategy which saw him leapfrog teammate Charles Leclerc, who had begun in pole position.
The move angered the 21-year-old -- and he made his feelings known.
"I don't understand the undercut at all. But we discuss it later," Leclerc fired over the team radio.
The issue concerned the team's decision to pit Vettel early, which allowed him to get ahead of his teammate as Leclerc emerged from a pit stop a lap later.
For Vettel, though, it was a much needed win after a difficult year for the four-time world champion who has been plagued with bad luck and prone to sloppy mistakes.
"I'm very happy. It was a great race. First of all big congratulations to the team," said Vettel, who said he was surprised to come out ahead of the field.
"The start of the season has been difficult for us, then we started to come alive and I'm really proud of everyone's work back home."